Frequently Asked Questions
General-Frequently Asked Questions
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What types of insulation are on automotive wire?
The three main types of PVC automotive wire are:
1.GPT- used for general circuit wiring and rated to 80 °C
2.TWP- lead-free, thin wall automotive wire rated to 105 °C
3.HDT- heavy wall automotive wiring rated to 80 °C
PVC is insulation is extruded, which is created by heating PVC and then extruding it through a die on the stranding. This insulation can be melted with a heat source, changing the form.
The three most common types of cross-linked automotive wire are:
1.GXL– thin wall, most common type, works with most standard automotive connectors, rated to 125 °C
2.SXL– standard wall, rated to 125 °C
3.TXL– extra thin wall, best for applications that require minimal size and weight, rated to 125 °C
Cross-linked insulation is created by extruding the material through a tube, under heat and pressure, in order to 'cross-link' or change the molecules of the insulation to another state.
How do you determine the Gauge (AWG) of the automotive wire?
Make a small cut about 1/2" long and remove the insulation on the automotive wire. Then you will need to count the individual strands of copper. Next use a micrometer and measure one of the strands. Also count the total number of strands that are present in the automotive wire. Look at the following information to determine the gauge of your automotive wire.
7/.028 = 20 (7 strands that measure .028 each equals 20 gauge)
16/.030 = 18 AWG
19/.029 = 16 AWG
19/.027 = 14 AWG
19/.025 = 12 AWG
19/.023 = 10 AWG
19/.021 = 8 AWG
37/.021 = 6 AWG
What are some of the different types of battery cable?
Battery cable is large automotive cable. Like smaller types of automotive wire, it is available in PVC and cross-linked forms.
One type of PVC battery cable is SGT cable. It is rated to 80°C. SGT can be used in starters or battery grounds.
Cross-linked battery cables can also be used in starter and battery ground applications, but they are more resistant to heat, abrasion, and aging than PVC cable. Two types of cross-linked battery cable are SGX and STX. They are rated to 125°C. Of the three types of battery cable, STX has the thinnest wall, making it a popular choice for automotive applications with limited space.
What is CCA Wire?
Copper-clad aluminum wire, commonly abbreviated as CCAW or CCA, is a conductor composed of an inner aluminum core and outer copper cladding.
What is CCA Wire Using for?
The primary applications involve of this conductor revolve around weight reduction requirements. These applications include high-quality coils, such as the voice coils in headphones, portable loudspeakers or mobile coils; high frequency coaxial applications; such as RF antennas; CATV distribution cables; and power cables.
CCA was also used in mains cable for domestic and commercial premises. The copper/aluminium construction was adopted to avoid some of the problems with aluminium wire, yet retain some of the cost advantage. But, solid copper is most commonly used in internal residential 120v or 240v wiring in the US.
CCA became extremely popular on emerging markets as a cheap replacement for copper category 5e twisted pair cables.
What are CCA Wire's Properties?
Lighter than pure copper
Higher conductivity than pure aluminum
Higher strength than aluminum
Better solderability than aluminum, due to the lack of the oxide layer which prevents solder adhesion when soldering bare aluminum.
Less expensive than a pure copper wire
Typically produced as a 10% or 15% by copper volume product
What is the most common type of coaxial wire and cable used to carry video and TV signals?
The most common coaxial type to carry video signals is RG-59 B/U and RG 6 type 75 ohm coaxial cable.
What is Coaxial Cable?
According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coaxial_cable, Coaxial cable, or coax, is an electrical cable with an inner conductor surrounded by a flexible, tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing the same geometric axis.
Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals, in applications such as feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas, computer network (Internet) connections, and distributing cable television signals. One advantage of coax over other types of radio transmission line is that in an ideal coaxial cable the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outer conductors. This allows coaxial cable runs to be installed next to metal objects such as gutters without the power losses that occur in other types of transmission lines, and provides protection of the signal from external electromagnetic interference.
Coaxial cable differs from other shielded cable used for carrying lower frequency signals, such as audio signals, in that the dimensions of the cable are controlled to give a precise, constant conductor spacing, which is needed for it to function efficiently as a radio frequency transmission line.
Do coaxial cables degrade over time?
Yes. Over time, a coaxial cable will degrade and need to be replaced in order to maintain the integrity of the signal.
In what kinds of applications is coaxial cable used?
The coaxial cable family is commonly used in data processing equipment and information systems.
What does the “RG” stand for in the term “RG coax cable?”
“RG” is short for “radio grade.”
What is data cable?
A data cable is any media that allows baseband transmissions (binary 1,0's) from a transmitter to a receiver.
· Networking Media
o Ethernet Cables (Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a)
o Token Ring Cables (Cat4)
o Coaxial cable
o optical fiber cable; see fiber-optic communication
· Telecommunications Cable ( Cat2 or telephone cord)
What is CFL?
A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also known as a compact fluorescent light or energy saving light (or less commonly as a compact fluorescent tube), is a type of fluorescent lamp. Many CFLs are designed to replace an incandescent lamp and can fit into most existing light fixtures formerly used for incandescents.
Compared to general service incandescent lamps giving the same amount of visible light, CFLs use less power and have a longer rated life. In the United States, a CFL has a higher purchase price than an incandescent lamp, but can save over US$40 in electricity costs over the lamp's lifetime. Like all fluorescent lamps, CFLs contain mercury, which complicates their disposal. In the US many home improvement stores accept CFLs for recycling.
CFLs radiate a different light spectrum from that of incandescent lamps. Improved phosphor formulations have improved the perceived colour of the light emitted by CFLs such that some sources rate the best "soft white" CFLs as subjectively similar in colour to standard incandescent lamps.
The most important technical advance has been the replacement of electromagnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts; this has removed most of the flickering and slow starting traditionally associated with fluorescent lighting.
There are two types of CFLs: integrated and non-integrated lamps. Integrated lamps combine a tube, an electronic ballast and either an Edison screw or a bayonet fitting in a single unit. These lamps allow consumers to replace incandescent lamps easily with CFLs. Integrated CFLs work well in many standard incandescent light fixtures, reducing the cost of converting to fluorescent. Special 3-way models and dimmable models with standard bases are available.
Non-integrated CFLs have the ballast permanently installed in the luminaire, and only the lamp bulb is usually changed at its end of life. Since the ballasts are placed in the light fixture they are larger and last longer compared to the integrated ones, and they don't need to be replaced when the bulb reaches its end-of-life. Non-integrated CFL housings can be both more expensive and sophisticated. They have two types of tubes: a bi-pin tube designed for a conventional ballast, and a quad-pin tube designed for an electronic ballast or a conventional ballast with an external starter. A bi-pin tube contains an integrated starter which obviates the need for external heating pins but causes incompatibility with electronic ballasts.
What is Flexible Cable?
Flexible cables, or 'continuous-flex' cables, are cables specially designed to cope with the tight bending radii and physical stress associated with moving applications, such as inside cable carriers.
Due to increasing demands within the field of automation technology in the 1980s, such as increasing loads, moving cables guided inside cable carriers often failed, although the cable carriers themselves did not. In extreme cases, failures caused by "corkscrews" and core ruptures brought entire production lines to a standstill, at high cost. As a result, specialist, highly flexible cables were developed with unique characteristics to differentiate them from standard designs. These are sometimes called “chain-suitable,” “high-flex,” or “continuous flex” cables.
A higher level of flexibility means the service life of a cable inside a cable carrier can be greatly extended. A normal cable typically manages 50,000 cycles, but a dynamic cable can complete between one and three million cycles.
What kinds of applications use high temperature wire and cable?
High Temperature wire and cable is generally used in motors, furnaces, ovens, and high intensity lights.
What is the typical make-up of a high temperature cable?
The conductors in high temperature cable can be nickel coated copper or pure nickel, while the insulation in high temperature cable range from PTFE tapes and mica tapes to fiberglass and ceramic braids. Usually the cable jacket is a high temperature fiberglass or ceramic fiber braid.
What applications generally use high temperature wire TGGT & MGT?
TGGT high temperature wire is designed to be used in cooking and drying equipment such as industrial and commercial ovens, furnaces, heating cable, and kilns, to name just a few. The temperature rating of TGGT is 250 C with a voltage rating of 600 volts. MGT is generally used for internal wiring of commercial, industrial and household ovens, electric heaters, and in equipment used in iron mills, steel mills, glass plants and cement kilns. The temperature rating of MGT high temperature wire is 450 C with a voltage rating of 600 volts.
What are the benefits of PVC insulation on high temperature wire?
PVC insulation works well in a high temperature environment up to 105 C. The insulation offers excellent resistance to outside forces including weather, oil, abrasion, liquids and chemicals. PVC also possesses good dielectric strength.
When would Hook Up Wire be used?
Hook Up Wire is a single insulated conductor wire in the family of lead wire that may be used for low voltage, low current applications. The lead wire is frequently used in control panels, automotives, meters, ovens, internal wiring of computers, electronic equipment, business machines, and appliances. The wire is most often used within enclosed electronic equipment. Certain types of the lead wire may even be used in challenging military applications.
What types of insulation materials are available for Hook-Up Cable?
· EDPM (ethylene-propylene diene elastomer)
· Silicone Rubber
What is Optical Fiber Cable?
An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibers. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed.
OFC: Optical fiber, conductive
OFN: Optical fiber, nonconductive
OFCG: Optical fiber, conductive, general use
OFNG: Optical fiber, nonconductive, general use
OFCP: Optical fiber, conductive, plenum
OFNP: Optical fiber, nonconductive, plenum
OFCR: Optical fiber, conductive, riser
OFNR: Optical fiber, nonconductive, riser
OPGW: Optical fiber composite overhead ground wire
ADSS: All-Dielectric Self-Supporting
What is Solar Cable?
Solar cable suitable for the interconnection of the various elements of photovoltaic systems – for fixed installations outside and inside, within unprotected pipes, or in similar closed systems. The cable is tested to last 25 years.
Insulation:XLPE (Cross-Linked Polyethylene) halogen-free rubber. No toxic emissions, acids, gases or fumes.
Sheath:LSZH (Low Smoke Zero Halogen). UV-resistant , No toxic emissions, acids, gases or fumes.